Logo Historical Accountability Student Research Program

Civil Rights Movement at Dartmouth College

Students surround the car of George Wallace, 1967

Desegregating the Fraternities

Fraternities 4, 1950-1979 Vertical File Subject file containing memos, newspaper clippings, and other doucments about Dartmouth's fraternities dating from the time period that the Greek system began the process of desegregation.

The Dartmouth, articles about the Discrimination Referendum that required fraternities to remove discriminatory clauses from their constitutions:

  • March 25, 1954, p. 1 “Point One Ekes Out Majority By Four Votes; Amasses 1,128”
  • May 18, 1954, p. 2 “The Court’s Decision”
  • January 22, 1959, p. 1 “61s Negative in replies on Behalf of Nationals”

DA-8, Box 2558, File: Discrimination Letters, memos, Board of Trustees meeting minutes, and other documents regarding discriminatory clauses in Dartmouth fraternities kept in the Dean of the College records.

DOH-1 Oral history with John Sloan Dickey, in which he explains the need to eliminate discriminatory clauses when re-opening fraternities after WWII (Tape 19, Side A, p. 119).

DP-12, Box 11904, President Dickey's talk on fraternity discrimination Audio recording of an interview with President Dickey on April 12, 1959 for WDCR in which he directly speaks to issues of discrimination in Dartmouth's Greek system.

DO-37, Box 13146, Blackball box with marbles Object used to take a consensus vote, such as when accepting new members, in the Delta Kappa Epsilon fraternity. Photos of the box are featured on the Rauner Library Blog.

See also:

Going Local: Desegregating Dartmouth's Fraternities (Rauner Library Blog)

A Case Against Fraternity Desegregation (Rauner Library Blog)

Civil Rights Leaders on Campus

Jump to: MLK | Malcolm X | Kwame Ture

Martin Luther King, Jr.

Mss 960152 Letter from MLK, in which he confirms that he will lecture on civil rights for Dartmouth's Great Issues Course.

DA-12, Box 1387, File: Correspondence, King, Martin Luther, 1957 - 1962 Further correspondence regarding MLK's speaking engagement at Dartmouth.

King, Martin Luther Vertical File Subject file containing mostly photocopies of newspaper articles about Martin Luther King, Jr. and his activism during the Civil Rights Movement, including his visit to Dartmouth College. Of note is material related to his speaking engagement as part of the Great Issues Course, including a flyer advertising the event.

The Dartmouth, May 25, 1962, p. 1 “Dr. King to Overflow Crowd: ‘Segregation on Its Deathbed’” Article quoting from and paraphrasing the contents of MLK's Great Issues Course lecture.

DOH-31, Oral history with Richard Joseph, Class of 1965, runs for approximately five and a half hours and covers his undergraduate years during the 1960s, including his recollections of MLK's visit to campus. The audio of this interview is available on this website.

D.C. Hist E185.615 R667 “The Second Emancipation,” commencement speech by Rev. James Robinson, which makes connections to MLK’s comments as reported in the above article in The D.

See also:

Towards Freedom Audio and transcript of Martin Luther King, Jr.’s lecture for the Great Issues Course on May 23, 1962 published on the Dartmouth College Martin Luther King, Jr. Celebration website. For more information on Dartmouth's MLK celebrations, see the Archives and Manuscripts Search and the Library catalog.

MS-1335, Box 1, Manuscript collection containing drawings that depict the Washington riots following Martin Luther King's assassination in 1968 through the eyes of children, ages 8 to 16, who lived in the neighborhoods most affected by the turmoil. Select photos can be found in the Rauner Library Blog posts "Protest: Through A Child's Eyes" and "Where the Wild Things Really Are."

Malcolm X

Malcolm X Vertical File Subject containing mostly photocopies of newspaper articles about Malcolm X and his activism during the Civil Rights Movement, including his visit to Dartmouth College. Of note are transcripts of an interview between Malcolm X and Ken Sharpe at WDCR on January 26, 1965.

The Dartmouth, articles and opinion pieces regarding Malcolm X's speaking engagements at Dartmouth in January 1965:

DOH-31, Oral history with Richard Joseph, Class of 1965, runs for approximately five and a half hours and covers his undergraduate years during the 1960s, including his recollections of Malcolm X's visit to campus. The audio of this interview is available on this website.

DOH-471, Oral history interview with David C. H. Johnston, Class of 1966, in which he discusses civil rights more broadly during his time at Dartmouth, including recollections of campus visits by both Malcolm X and George S. Wallace. The audio an transcript of this interview is available on the Dartmouth Vietnam Project website.

See also:

Iconography 1399 Images of the Temple Murals, which pay homage to the life and work of Malcolm X, by artist Florian Jenkins. Included with the photos is a copy of the Nov. 1, 1972 press release for the dedication ceremony.

D.C. Hist ND237.J4 A33 “The Temple Murals,” text by the artist, Florian Jenkins, about the mural series.

The Temple Murals: The Life of Malcolm X Virtual tour of the Temple Mural series by Florian Jenkins in the Shabazz Center for Intellectual Inquiry.

Kwame Ture (Stokely Carmichael)

Poster Collection File - Lectures 1960s, includes a poster advertising a talk delivered by Stokely Carmichael, chairman of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, held at Webster Hall on November 13, 1966.

The Dartmouth, articles about Kwame Ture's speaking engagement at Dartmouth College:

  • Oct. 28, 1966, p. 1 “Stokely Carmichael to Speak on Campus”
  • Nov. 11, 1966, p. 1 “Carmichael to Speak to Campus on Sunday”
  • Nov. 14, 1966, p. 1 “Carmichael Speaks at College, Explains Idea of Black Power”

D.C. History LH1 .B55 Blackout, a student literary arts magazine published by the Afro-American Society. The first volume of this magazine contains and article about Ture's visit to campus, including a photo of him with student Woody Lee, Class of 1968 (p. 41).

Student Organizations & Activism

Jump to: Afro-American Society | Dartmouth Christian Union | Other Student Activism

Afro-American Society (AAm)

The Afro-American Society (AAm) formed in the mid-1960s as Black students at Dartmouth desired to strengthen communal identity and contribute to the ongoing work of racial and social justice.

DO-47, Afro-American Society records Seven box collection documenting the functions and activities of the AAm on campus from the late 1960s through the early 2000s. Includes the AAm constitution, meeting agendas and minutes, newsletters, financial information, posters for campus events, protest statements, periodicals and pamphlets, photographs, and audio-visual materials.

Afro-American Society Vertical File Subject file containing letters, clippings, and other documents related to the AAm from around 1968 through 2012.

D.C. History LD1441 .D3783 1969 Letter and lists of demands from the AAm to the Dartmouth administration in 1969. The AAm created their demands in response to the formation of the Dartmouth Board of Trustees Committee on Equal Opportunity after the assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr. in 1968. The demands include commitment to Black student recruitment and the creation of the Black Studies Program at Dartmouth, among other things.

D.C. History LH1 .B55 Blackout, a student literary arts magazine published by the AAm. The first two issues of the magazine are available on this website.

D.C. History E185.5 .B6 Black Praxis, a student newspaper published by the AAm for the “merging of thought and action.” This publication has been revived a few times since its original run; the current incarnation of this publication can be found on the Black Praxis website.

DOH-12 Oral history interview with Errol Hill, former faculty advisor to the AAm, in which he and Grace Hill describe the climate for Black people living in Hanover and working at Dartmouth in the 1960s, as well as recount notable events on campus, such as the protest of William Shockley's speech on campus by AAm members. The audio and transcript of this interview is available on this website.

DP-12, President Dickey's subject files on the AAm (2 files)

DP-13, President Kemeny's subject files on the AAm (10 files)

  • Box 8448, File: Afro-American Society, 1971-72
  • Box 8455, File: Afro-American Society, 1972-73
  • Box 8462, File: Afro-American Society, 1973-74
  • Box 8470, File: Afro-American Society, 1974-75
  • Box 8477, File: Afro-American Society, 1975-76
  • Box 8483, File: Afro-American Society, 1976-77
  • Box 8490, File: Afro-American Society, 1977-78
  • Box 8497, File: Afro-American Society, 1978-79
  • Box 8504, File: Afro-American Society, 1979-80
  • Box 8511, File: Afro-American Society, 1980-81

Dartmouth Christian Union

DOH-31, Oral history with Richard Joseph, Class of 1965, in which he mentions the Dartmouth Christian Union and George Kalbfleisch as important catalysts for social justice on campus. The audio of this interview is available on this website.

DO-85, Dartmouth Christian Union records Five box collection containing multiple scrapbooks documenting the involvement of the Dartmouth Christian Union's Political Action Committee, and other Dartmouth students, in social and political activism, primarily regarding civil rights between 1940 and 1967. Of particular note is the 1962-1964 scrapbook.

DA-8, Box 4540, File: Liutkus Jonas Gintautas 1965 Dean’s File, includes letters from Liutkus to George Kalbfleisch about voter recruitment in Selma, Alabama and being thrown in jail.

Jonas Liutkus, Class of 1965, Alumni File, includes letters from Liutkus to George Kalbfleisch about voter recruitment in Selma, Alabama and being thrown in jail.

George Kalbfleisch Affiliates File Subject file created internally by the College Archives containing documents about Kalbfleisch.

The Dartmouth, February 24, 1965, p. 2 Letter to the editor from Liutkus in Selma, Alabama

DOH-450, Oral history interview with Richard Parker, Class of 1968, discusses his religious background and his experiences with the civil rights movement. In particular, he describes his time as a student at Dartmouth, including his involvement in the Dartmouth Christian Union (DCU), his work with the Dartmouth-Talladega Upward Bound program in Alabama in 1966, and his participation in campus protests. The audio and transcript of this interview is available on the Dartmouth Vietnam Project website.

Other Student Activism

Codex 003232 Diary of Peter Buck ’68, which documents his 1965 trip to Williamston, NC, and Atlanta, GA as part of the voter registration efforts for African-Americans led by the Summer Community Organization and Political Education (SCOPE) Project of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC).

Notable Campus Protests

George Wallace Protests (1963, 1967)

George Wallace was a pro-segregationist politician and former Governor of Alabama. He came to speak at Dartmouth on two separate occasions in the 1960s, both of which led to demonstrations of some kind.

Wallace, George (Gov., Alabama) Photographs of Wallace and protests in response to Wallace from both of his visits to campus in the Photographic Files.

Student Protests 2 Vertical File Subject file of clippings, press releases, and other documents about student protests at Dartmouth from 1960 to 1967. Contains some information about Wallace's visits to campus.

D.C. History KF4155 .W3 Transcript of Wallace's 1963 speech.

DA-32 George Wallace Incident records Collection that includes correspondence, form and other printed matter and newspaper clippings, letters from alumni and others, as well as Vice President Colton's reply in response to the student protest of Wallace speaking on campus in 1967.

Mss 967303 George C. Wallace lecture ticket stub.

"The Shockley Incident" (1969)

In 1969, Dr. William Shockley was scheduled to give a lecture entitled, “The Offset Analysis of Racial Differences,” which suggested there are genetic differences in intelligence on the basis of race. A group of Black students protested the lecture, causing subsequent controversy on campus.

DA-23, Shockley incident records Single-box collection that includes correspondence, forms and other printed material, and newspaper clippings related to the Shockley Incident.

Shockley, William Vertical File Subject file containing newspaper clippings and press releases related to the Shockley Incident.

Student Protests 5 Vertical File Subject file of clippings, press releases, and other documents about student protests at Dartmouth between June 1969 and December 1969. Contains some information about the Shockley Incident, which occurred in October 1969.

DA-1, Dartmouth College Board of Trustees records

ML-77, Errol Hill papers Contains statements, reports, and other documents about the Shockley incident, including an excerpt from "The Offset Analysis of Racial Differences."

DOH-12 Oral history interview with Errol Hill, former faculty advisor to the AAm, in which he and Grace Hill describe the climate for Black people living in Hanover and working at Dartmouth in the 1960s, as well as recount notable events on campus, such as the protest of William Shockley's speech on campus by AAm members. The audio and transcript of this interview is available on this website.

Student Recruitment Efforts

Affirmative Action I Vertical File Subject file containing documentation related to early equal opportunity student recruitment at Dartmouth College in the late 20th century, including:

  • Notes on Equal Opportunity Recruiting in which the self-appointed Black Student Application Encouragement Committee (BSAEC) outlines costs incurred by student recruiters and recruitment tactics in the form of on-site high school visits, mailed letters and informational packets to prospective students, conference attendance, and calls or meetings with Black students accepted to the College.

D.C. History LD1428 .D33 The Black Student at Dartmouth, an informational pamphlet that was used to recruit more Black students to Dartmouth College. In the publication, Black students are depicted in both academic and extracurricular settings and give testimonies about their college experiences.

See also

The Black Student Experience, 1960-1979 A digital exhibit curated by Anneliese Thomas '19 as part of her Winter 2019 Historical Accountability Student Research Fellowship. Many of the above links to individual primary sources have been digitized as part of this exhibition.

Free Men All: The Civil Rights Movement at Dartmouth An exhibition on display at Rauner in 2014 featuring some of the above primary sources; link includes the poster and handlist of the exhibited items with descriptions. This exhibit was prepared in conjunction with the Hood Museum exhibit Witness: Art and Civil Rights in the Sixties.

Note: This list is not an exhaustive representation of all materials in Rauner Special Collections Library on the above subject(s). To search for additional sources, use the library catalog or online finding aids.

Last updated: October 2021

Students surround the car of George Wallace, 1967

A list of primary sources in Rauner Special Collections Library related to activities on campus during the period of the Civil Rights Movement.

Go to top of page